Oxygen Administration

Oxygen AdministrationNasal Cannula The nasal cannula is a thin tube with two small nozzles that protrude into the victim’s nostrils. It can only provide oxygen at low flow rates: 2-6 liters per minute, delivering a concentration of 28-44%. Use of the nasal cannula at higher flow rates than 6 liters […]


Introduction A seizure occurs when the electrical activity of the brain becomes irregular. When the electrical activity is severely irregular, the result may be a seizure. A seizure is a medical emergency. Seizures may be caused by either an acute or chronic condition such as epilepsy. Risk Factors for Seizures: […]

Airway Management

A bag valve mask (also known as a BVM or Ambu bag, which is a brand name) is a hand-held device used to provide ventilation to a victim who is not breathing. The device is self fills with air, although it may be connected to an oxygen system. Use of […]


START is a simple triage system that first aiders can learn to use with little training. Simple triage identifies which persons need advanced medical care. In START, persons should be treated and evacuated as follows: DECEASED are left where they fell, covered if necessary; note that in START a person […]

Automated External Defibrillation

Defibrillation is an essential part of resuscitation. Survival chances of a fibrillating victim (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia) start at 90% if defibrillated immediately and decrease by 10% every minute. Should a victim be in cardiac arrest and require defibrillation, it is crucial that EMS is called immediately. Defribrillation operations […]


Introduction Specific information concerning treatment can be obtained from accompanying labels or written documentation such as the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). Expert advice (poison control) and rapid transport to advanced medical care (EMS) is urgently needed in poisoning cases. A poisoning victim may require basic life support at any […]

Marine First Aid

Fish hooks Many a fisherman has felt the pain associated with stabbing an extremity with a fish hook. Thankfully, these wounds are generally not dangerous when properly treated. In all cases, proper treatment is crucial due to the potential side effects of the unclean metal. Before attempting to remove the […]

Pressure-Related Illness & Injury

As divers ascend, the pressure the water column exerts on them decreases, which decreases the solubility of gasses. Those gases will no longer stay dissolved in the bloodstream, and escape at a maximum rate. If the ascent is faster than the rate that the gases can escape from the bloodstream […]

Mental Health Emergency

A mental health emergency (or ‘crisis’), is a form of medical emergency in which the mental state or mental capacity of a patient is adversely compromised or impaired compared to that considered normal. Causes The causes and triggers of a ‘Crisis’ can be complex, and highly subjective to the individual […]

Wilderness First Aid

Wilderness first aid is the practice of first aid where definitive care is more than one hour away, and often days to weeks away. The practice of wilderness first aid is defined by difficult victim access, limited equipment, and environmental extremes. As such, care can differ radically from that which […]