Internal Bleeding

Introduction Internal bleeding is bleeding which occurs inside the body. Sometimes the blood will leak from inside the body through natural openings. Other times the blood stays inside the body, causing pain and shock, even though you cannot see the blood loss. Causes Internal bleeding can be caused numerous ways. […]

Musculoskeletal Injuries

Sprains, strains, dislocations, and fractures can all present with the same symptoms. It is very difficult to determine what the injury may be. It is not necessary to know which injury the victim has as the treatment will be the same for all of them. Sprains only occur when a […]

Heart Attack & Angina

Introduction Heart attack (myocardial infarction) is when blood supply to the heart or part of the heart is cut off partially or completely, which leads to death of the heart muscle due to oxygen deprivation. Heart attacks usually occur after periods of rest or being recumbent, and only rarely occur […]

First aid

Overview First aid is the provision of limited care for an illness or injury, which is provided, usually by a lay person, to a sick or injured patient until definitive medical treatment can be accessed, or until the illness or injury is dealt with (as not all illnesses or injuries […]

Chest & Abdominal Injuries

Overview Injuries to the chest and abdomen can be difficult to recognize and treat, and many injuries can go unnoticed until they become very serious. The muscle and bones that serve to protect vital organs can also mask their injuries – or at worst contribute to them. It is important […]

External Bleeding

Introduction Bleeding is a common reason for the application of first aid measures and can be internal or external. The principle difference is whether the blood leaves the body – external bleeding can be seen, whereas in internal bleeding, no blood can be seen. There are many causes of external […]


Immobilization The proper method of slinging depends on where the injury occurred on the arm. After applying a sling, ensure circulation to the arm has not been compromised by doing a distal circulation check. Remember also that moving an arm into a position where you can put a sling on […]

Secondary Assessment

The secondary assessment/survey is done once the primary survey is completed and non-life threatening injuries can be assessed. This survey can be performed after removing the athlete from the field. When performing this type of assessment it is vital for the clinician to gain as much information as possible in […]

Primary Assessment & Basic Life Support

The first thing you should do in any situation requiring first aid is to follow the three C’s: Check, Call, Care To Check the victim, you must first survey the scene to ensure your safety. You need to notice the victim’s position as you approach him or her and any […]

Head & Facial Injuries

Head Injuries Head wounds must be treated with particular care, since there is always the possibility of brain damage. The general treatment for head wounds is the same as that for other flesh wounds. However, certain special precautions must be observed if you are giving first aid to a person […]