Primary Assessment & Basic Life Support

The first thing you should do in any situation requiring first aid is to follow the three C’s: Check, Call, Care To Check the victim, you must first survey the scene to ensure your safety. You need to notice the victim’s position as you approach him or her and any […]

Anaphylactic Shock

Introduction Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening medical emergency because of rapid constriction of the airway, often within minutes of exposure to the allergen. It is commonly triggered by insect stings and foods such as shellfish or peanuts. Call for help immediately. First aid for anaphylaxis consists of obtaining advanced medical care […]

Musculoskeletal Injuries

Sprains, strains, dislocations, and fractures can all present with the same symptoms. It is very difficult to determine what the injury may be. It is not necessary to know which injury the victim has as the treatment will be the same for all of them. Sprains only occur when a […]

Internal Bleeding

Introduction Internal bleeding is bleeding which occurs inside the body. Sometimes the blood will leak from inside the body through natural openings. Other times the blood stays inside the body, causing pain and shock, even though you cannot see the blood loss. Causes Internal bleeding can be caused numerous ways. […]

Chest & Abdominal Injuries

Overview Injuries to the chest and abdomen can be difficult to recognize and treat, and many injuries can go unnoticed until they become very serious. The muscle and bones that serve to protect vital organs can also mask their injuries – or at worst contribute to them. It is important […]

External Bleeding

Introduction Bleeding is a common reason for the application of first aid measures and can be internal or external. The principle difference is whether the blood leaves the body – external bleeding can be seen, whereas in internal bleeding, no blood can be seen. There are many causes of external […]


Introduction Shock can refer to a range of related medical conditions in which the victim’s heart, lungs and blood cannot deliver oxygen to the body properly. Shock is not a diagnosis or condition, it is always a symptom of a larger problem, and is a medical emergency that requires immediate […]


A burn is the exposure of tissue to heat (thermal burns), chemicals (wet or dry), by electricity, or by radiation. Recognition There are 4 degrees of burns: Superficial Burn – First-degree skin will be dry, red, may swell and will usually be painful. An ordinary sunburn is a common example. […]

Asthma & Hyperventilation

Introduction Asthma attacks are characterized by inflammation of the airway, which restricts air exchange. Asthma is a medical condition which causes swelling of the airway, constricting airflow. Hyperventilation is simply breathing at an inappropriately high rate. Recognition Asthma is characterized by difficulty breathing, wheezing, increased secretions in the airway, and […]


Immobilization The proper method of slinging depends on where the injury occurred on the arm. After applying a sling, ensure circulation to the arm has not been compromised by doing a distal circulation check. Remember also that moving an arm into a position where you can put a sling on […]