Hematospermia

Hematospermia (also known as haematospermia, hemospermia, or haemospermia) is the presence of blood in ejaculation. It is most often a benign symptom. Among men age 40 or older, hematospermia is a slight predictor of cancer, typically prostate cancer. No specific cause is found in up to 70% of cases. Though haematospermia may cause considerable distress to patients, it is often a benign and self-limiting condition caused by infections, particularly in younger patients. An isolated episode is usually considered benign and not likely to be associated with malignancy.

Recurrent haematospermia may indicate a more serious underlying pathology particularly in patients over 40 years of age. Infection or inflammation is considered the most common cause of the condition. Implicated pathogens include; Gram-negative bacteria (often E. coli), gonococci, T. pallidum, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, echinococcus (rarely), HSV type 1 or 2, and HPV. The condition may also rarely be caused by some chronic systemic infections like tuberculosis or schistosomiasis. Additionally, testicular, prostate, and epididymal inflammation in general may present with haematospermia as feature. Some neoplasms of the genitourinary system may present with haematospermia.

Malignant causes of haematospermia include; prostate cancer, testicular or epididymal tumours, seminal vesicle carcinoma (rarely), and urethral tumour. Lymphomas and leukaemias may also feature haematospermia as symptom.

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